Instrumentacion Electronica Miguel Perez.pdf
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Instrumentacion Electronica Miguel Perez.pdf: A Comprehensive Guide to Electronic Instrumentation
Electronic instrumentation is the science and art of measuring, controlling, and manipulating physical phenomena using electronic devices and circuits. Electronic instrumentation can be applied to a wide range of fields, such as engineering, medicine, astronomy, physics, chemistry, biology, and more.
In this book, Instrumentacion Electronica Miguel Perez.pdf, the author Miguel Perez provides a comprehensive and practical introduction to the principles, design, and applications of electronic instrumentation. The book covers topics such as:
The basic concepts of electronic instrumentation, such as sensors, transducers, signal conditioning, data acquisition, and display.
The main types of electronic instruments, such as oscilloscopes, multimeters, function generators, frequency counters, spectrum analyzers, and more.
The design and analysis of electronic circuits and systems for instrumentation purposes, such as amplifiers, filters, converters, modulators, demodulators, and more.
The use of microcontrollers and microprocessors for electronic instrumentation, such as programming, interfacing, communication protocols, and more.
The applications of electronic instrumentation in various domains, such as biomedical engineering, industrial automation, environmental monitoring, aerospace engineering, and more.
The book is written in a clear and concise manner, with numerous examples, exercises, and case studies. The book also includes a CD-ROM with software tools and simulation programs for electronic instrumentation. The book is suitable for students, teachers, researchers, and professionals who want to learn or improve their skills in electronic instrumentation.
In this section, we will review some of the basic concepts of electronic instrumentation, such as sensors, transducers, signal conditioning, data acquisition, and display. These concepts are essential for understanding the functioning and performance of electronic instruments.
Sensors and Transducers
A sensor is a device that converts a physical quantity into an electrical signal. For example, a thermocouple is a sensor that converts temperature into voltage. A transducer is a device that converts one form of energy into another. For example, a microphone is a transducer that converts sound waves into electrical signals. A transducer can also act as a sensor if the input energy is a physical quantity and the output energy is electrical. For example, a strain gauge is a transducer that converts mechanical strain into electrical resistance.
Sensors and transducers are classified into two types: active and passive. Active sensors and transducers generate their own electrical output signal without requiring an external power source. For example, a piezoelectric crystal is an active transducer that produces voltage when subjected to mechanical stress. Passive sensors and transducers require an external power source to produce an electrical output signal. For example, a resistive temperature detector (RTD) is a passive sensor that changes its resistance with temperature.
Signal conditioning is the process of modifying the electrical signal from the sensor or transducer to make it suitable for further processing or measurement. Signal conditioning can involve operations such as amplification, filtering, conversion, isolation, linearization, compensation, and modulation. Signal conditioning can be performed using analog or digital circuits or both.
Amplification is the process of increasing the amplitude or level of the signal. Amplification can be used to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) or to match the signal level to the input range of the next stage. Amplifiers can be classified into different types based on their frequency response, such as low-pass, high-pass, band-pass, and band-reject.
Filtering is the process of removing unwanted components or frequencies from the signal. Filtering can be used to eliminate noise or interference or to extract specific features from the signal. Filters can be classified into different types based on their frequency response, such as low-pass, high-pass, band-pass, and band-reject.
Conversion is the process of changing the form or representation of the signal. Conversion can be used to adapt the signal to different standards or devices or to perform mathematical operations on the signal. Some common types of conversion are analog-to-digital (A/D), digital-to-analog (D/A), voltage-to-current (V/I), current-to-voltage (I/V), frequency-to-voltage (F/V), and voltage-to-frequency (V/F).
Data acquisition is the process of sampling, digitizing, storing, and transferring the electrical signal from the sensor or transducer to a computer or other device for further analysis or display. Data acquisition can be performed using hardware devices such as data acquisition cards (DAQs), data loggers, oscilloscopes, multimeters, etc., or software programs such as LabVIEW, MATLAB, etc.
Data acquisition involves several parameters that affect the quality and accuracy of the measurement, such as sampling rate, resolution, accuracy, range, offset, gain, etc. Sampling rate is the number of samples taken per unit time. Resolution is the number of bits used to represent each sample. Accuracy is the degree of closeness of the measured value to the true value. Range is the minimum and maximum values that can be measured by the device. Offset is the constant error added to or subtracted from the measured value. Gain is the factor by which the measured value is multiplied or divided.
Display is the process of presenting the electrical signal from the sensor or transducer in a visual or audible form for human observation or interpretation. Display can be performed using devices such as monitors, speakers, printers, etc., or software programs such as LabVIEW, MATLAB, etc.
Display involves several parameters that affect the readability and clarity of the presentation, such as format, scale, units, labels, colors, fonts, etc. Format is the way of representing the data in terms of graphs, tables, charts, etc. Scale is the ratio between the physical 061ffe29dd